Saturday, July 18, 2020
Working With The Media Example Working With The Media â" Assignment Example > Working with the mediaIntroductionThe paper presents two rough drafts of media releases providing the national tour details of two of the biggest names in the world of music: Michael Bolton and John Mayer. However, even before providing the drafts, it is needed to understand the concept of press release and the elements that encompass a press release. Further, the paper would focus on the information needed to create these two press releases. Finally, two rough drafts of the releases would be provided. Describing press releaseA media release or press release is described as a written or recorded form of communication disseminated to the media to announce about some important news. Generally a press release is sent to the media via mail, e-mail or fax. Such a release is sent to all form of media, i.e. newspapers, news channels, magazines, radio stations etc. Some even employ the services of professional press release distribution companies to distribute releases to a wider audience . Some of these distribution services are Business Wire, PR Newswire and PR NewsChannel (Bartram, 1999). Press releases are being commonly used in public relations field. This is a method through which public relations companies try to attract media attention towards the product or event of their clients and provide favourable publicity. A release is generally given to provide the reporters some basic information about the product or event. On the basis of this release, the journalists develop their stories. A press release is issued to announce variety of news such as scheduling of events, winning of awards, launching of new products or services, sales and revenue data etc. Many journalists also develop a feature story out of these releases. Some of the releases are also used to announce details about conferences or changes in an organisation (Bivins, 1995). Elements of press releaseAlthough, there are various types of press releases like event related release, product launch rel ease and financial announcement releases, most releases have common characteristics and follows a unified structure. This is done to help journalists in recognising a press release easily and separate them from other such public relations tools like a media advisories or pitch letter. Some of the common characteristics of a press release are (Bartram, 1999): Headline: The headline should be brief and crisp, summarising the news in a line, albeit in a creative manner. Dateline: The release date and the city from where the release has originated. Introduction: Basic information about the event is provided in the very first paragraph of the release. Body: This describes the event in detail, providing data and background on the event. Boilerplate: It is also known as the about section, wherein, information about the company, event or personality is being provided. Close: Different countries use different symbols to indicate that the press release has been closed. For instance in the U S, â-30-â is being used. More commonly the symbol #### is used. Contact information: The name, number and all other relevant contact details of the PR personal is provided at the end of the press release so that the media may contact the person for further information.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Jack has just been in a serious car accident. He is suffering from brain damage and paralysis. His family does not want him to live the rest of his life this way, but do they have a choice in ending the pain and suffering of their loved one? According to most state governments and countries, the answer is no; however, there is method allowed in some states to stop the pain and suffering for both the patient and his family. This method is called euthanasia. Euthanasia is the deliberate, painless killing of persons who suffer from a physically or emotionally painful or incurable disease or condition. Euthanasia is illegal in most countries and few doctors practice it, but it is a decision that seriously ill or injured people and theirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Living wills allow a person to say that they do not want to be kept alive through extraordinary medical measures (Moreover). This is where euthanasia comes into play. If euthanasia is allowed, then the personÃ¢â¬â¢s wish would be granted and they would not have to spend the rest of their life suffering. Ã¢â¬Å"Another concept increasingly deployed by advocates of euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide is that the terminally ill have a Ã¢â¬Ëright to dieÃ¢â¬â¢-that is, not only a right to refuse treatment, but a right to obtain help in committing suicideÃ¢â¬ (Moreover). In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Killing With KindnessÃ¢â¬ , Caroline Daniel states that two academics from Glasgow UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Institute of Law and Ethics in medicine believe that keeping a person alive who wants to die is not only an infringement of their rights, but arguably an irresponsible use of resources (Daniel). They are saying that the terminally ill cannot be denied the right of euthanasia. A person should have the right to decide his/her own fate, and if the patient and their family both state that they want euthanasia to be performed, then they cannot be denied that right. There is also some concern that denying someone the right of euthanasia is putting a strain on available resources. Many countries are unable to build decent hospitals, and it is even harder for some countries to attract quality medical personnel. This lack of resources makes the choice of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Neighborhood Watch Research Study As we evaluate the effectiveness of the neighborhood watch program in the City of Bird Island, Minnesota we will try to persuade the mayor of Bird Island of how effective the neighborhood watch program has been thus far. Over the past few years the crime statistics have shown that the crime rate has continued to rise throughout the state of Minnesota. However, with the staggering numbers constantly growing, Bird Island has kept low numbers of crime statically that have been committed in Bird Island. The neighborhood watch program in the City of Bird Island has shown to be very proactive in deterring crime. The City of Bird Island neighborhood watch program has lead several community based programs toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The broken window thesis emphasizes that if a neighborhood is maintained neat were all the buildings in the surroundings are in good condition or occupied, less criminal activity would occur in such neighborhood. When a neighborhood is not properly maintained, such area is prone to vandalism, delinquent activity from members of other neighborhoods thinking that such neighborhood is out of Ã¢â¬Å"control.Ã¢â¬ Accordingly to the broken window thesis: Ã¢â¬Å"Central to the criminology of place is the broken window thesis, which holds that physical deterioration and an increase in un-repaired buildings lead to increased concerns for personal safety among area residents. Heightened concerns, in turn, lead to further decreases in maintenance and repair and to increase delinquency, vandalism, and crime among local residents which spawn even further deterioration i n both a sense of safety and the physical environment.Ã¢â¬ Schmalleger (2009). The focus of social organization in the early twentieth century was viewed by the sociologists Park and Burgess as zones of population conflict. They designed the zones neighborhood where Ã¢â¬Å"zone I or the Ã¢â¬Å"loopÃ¢â¬ were retail business, and light manufacturing were typically located. Zone II, surrounding the city center, was home to recent immigrant groups and wasShow MoreRelatedCrime Prevention Programs Help Protect And Deter Crime Within Neighborhoods1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprevention programs help to prevent and deter crime within neighborhoods by getting the neighbors involved. Neighborhood watches use residents within a neighborhood to look out for suspicious activity/ issues then report them to police before any crime occurs. Using this method potentially deters crime and offenders from committing more crimes. A neighborhood watch can consist of a block watch, community watch, home watch and citizen alert. Neighborhood crime prevention programs arose because of the needRead MoreCommunity Crime Prevention Programs 1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessuccess. Community members must be active to identify problems and brainstorm solutions to these issues. Community crime prevention techniques listed by the BJA include: community policing, neighborhood watches, comprehensive programs (i.e. Weed and Seed), and Ad hoc law enforcement activities (BJA, 2014). This research paper will focus on a number of community crime prevention programs; including the programÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, how the program is executed, and effectiveness of the program. By the end of the paperRead MoreNeighborhood Watch1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNeighborhood Watch Proposal Neighborhood Watch Proposal Introduction A Neighborhood Watch Program is a community-implemented program that assists with preventing crime. This program was started in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s by the National SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s Association to encourage members of various communities to observe and report on suspicious activities within their neighborhoods. The Neighborhood Watch ProgramÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to improve safety within a neighborhood. Providing a study on communitiesRead MoreThe Construction Of The Criminal Justice System Essay1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunits within their agencies tailored specifically towards the reducing crime and enhancing the quality of life within their community. Certainly, the strategies law enforcement agencies utilize across the United States varyÃ¢â¬âsignificantly. During my research, I uncovered strategies which exhibited vast effectiveness while others fell short or simply could not be substantiated. For the purpose of this paper, I will only identify effective strategies in which l aw enforcement agencies utilize today. COMMUNITY-ORIENTEDRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System Essay1435 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesunsubstantiated. Controlling crime encompasses a combination of strategies rather than a single strategy. I. Neighborhood Watch The National Sheriffs Association NSA sponsors one of the prevalent and effective crime control strategies in the United States, the Neighborhood Watch, which has strong roots dating back to the Colonial settlements. (The National Sheriffs Association). Neighborhood Watch programs have prevailed in reducing crime thanks to law enforcement agencies educating and promoting awarenessRead MoreNeighborhood Comparison of the Upper and Poor Class1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNeighborhood Comparison of the Upper and Poor Class Introduction Income, race, ethnicity, religion and culture all have profound impacts on neighborhoods. Some impacts consist of area appearance, transportation options, friendliness, safety options, and lack of resources. This week I visited a poor and upper class neighborhood at two different hours of the day. The first day I visit the poor class neighborhood call Lincoln Heights in Monroe Louisiana at 8:00 A.M. and 7:00 P.M. The second dayRead MoreCommunity Corrections1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNeighborhood Crime Prevention Program Denrick Lewis CJ 521 October 2, 2012 Neighborhood Crime Prevention Program Introduction Neighborhood crime prevention program is part of a comprehensive package that is implemented to deter and prevent crime within neighborhoods by involving the residents. It involves a neighborhood watch where people watch over their neighborsÃ¢â¬â¢ safety. It works through neighbors within a residence who are supposed to look out for suspicious issues and incidents andRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System Essay1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunits within their agencies tailored specifically towards the reducing crime and enhancing the quality of life within their community. Certainly, the strategies law enforcement agencies utilize across the United States vary--significantly. During my research, I uncovered strategies which exhibited vast effectiveness while others fell short or simply not substantiated. I. Community-Oriented Policing Community policing, is best defined by the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), A philosophyRead MoreHow Effective Is Crime Displacement And Diffusion1406 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCrime Prevention Programs The studies and research of crime prevention programs in a specific area may overlook the reasoning and effects of reduced criminal activities that are reviewed. Crime Displacement and Diffusion play a vital role in crime prevention in the society as a whole. Displacement is very important when determining if a program or initiative works, regarding crime prevention as well as reduction of crimes in a particular area. Neighborhood watch and block groups and crime televisionRead MorePolice Officers Are Our First Line Of Defense Essay1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunits within their agencies tailored specifically towards the reducing crime and enhancing the quality of life within their community. Certainly, the strategies law enforcement agencies utilize across the United States varyÃ¢â¬âsignificantly. During my research, I uncovered strategies which exhibited vast effectiveness while others fell short or simply could not be substantiated. I. Community-Oriented Policing Community policing, is best defined by the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Ã¢â¬Å"A philosophy
It is interesting to explore the work of art of Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s A Farewell to Arms. In the story, it gives the readers a sense of responsibility hand in hand with intense love for someone that the protagonist has to his beloved. The blend of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction and love are the focal elements in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpiece. We will write a custom essay sample on LifeÃ¢â¬â¢s Dispute or any similar topic only for you Order Now As the author shed light to the intriguing scenario of the story, at some point, the readers would have passionate longing and at the same time a huge responsibility to his craft. It is indeed in this story that the author uses the realities of life which truly give emphasis to the norm of the story. Furthermore, A Farewell to Arms involves a great representation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ideals in life. On how the central character portrays his conviction all through out the story is the essential part of this paper. The elaboration of ideals as well as realities of life will be presented in this dissertation. In lieu of the story, Frederick Henry is the leading character. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a volunteer ambulance driver which has a huge responsibility in the realm that he is into but at the same time, at the back of his mind, he is thinking about the indifferent world. Accordingly, he does his work efficiently but along the way, he makes a gesture that he misses the point wherein the essentiality his work does not serve his persona anymore. In addition to the protagonist ideals in life, it was characterized in the story how he passionately fall in love with Catherine with whom he focuses his attention. The deep rooted feelings that he established towards Catherine truly leave a mark to his character and on the later part of the story, it was clearly shown how he stand with his love despite the challenges that comes their way. Catherine Barkley was said to be the one behind the character of Frederick Henry. She was once loose her fiancÃ ©. She met Frederick Henry in the hospital. They both got attracted with each other which lead them to have a relationship. Their affair was intensely depicted in the story which enlightens the very essence of A Farewell to Arms. CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s character without a doubt had a huge impact to Frederick HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s character. She simply defines the perseverance of the central character by using their love as central element, Ã¢â¬Å"I want what you want. There is no any me any more just what you wantÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway, p.106). The characteristic of Frederick Henry is not the serious type when it comes to relationship, Ã¢â¬Å"I did not love Catherine Barkley nor had any idea of loving her. This was a game, like bridge, in which you said things instead of playing cards. Like bridge you had to pretend you were playing for money or playing for some stakes. Nobody had mentioned what the stakes wereÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway, p. 31). As Frederick Henry had an attachment to Catherine, his feelings transforms in a much deeper character of a man with conviction to his girl. On the later part of the story when Catherine had difficulty in her pregnancy and to the extent that she looses her life with their baby, it expounds the strength in the leading roleÃ¢â¬â¢s character as he stand firm and with open arms accept the challenges of life. Truly, the world is indifferent in the eyes of Frederick Henry but because of CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to his life, he became strong with a grip to love the life that he has. Rinaldi, a physician and a friend to Frederick Henry was one of the contributing characters in the story. Through this man, it draws a picture of concentrated aim for the best. He focuses his attention to two things Ã¢â¬â war and country. This man talks about medal of bravery and development in ones craft. Indeed, it gives the leading character to have a perception as regards to work as well as to excel in his field. Passini, another effective character in A Farewell to Arms delineates the intention of the story. Considering his character, his views in life was to quit with what he is doing. He wanted to end the war just like that because he does not appreciate anymore the imperative task he is portraying, Ã¢â¬Å"One side must stop fighting. Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t we stop fightingÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway, p.51). Unfortunately, he died in the event of the story, and this circumstance serves an eye opener to the protagonist that when you relinquish the struggle, you almost surrender yourself. How to cite LifeÃ¢â¬â¢s Dispute, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Table of Contents The Phenomenological Tradition The Cybernetic tradition The Sociopsychological Tradition The Sociocultural Tradition The Critical Tradition The Rhetorical Tradition References The Phenomenological Tradition It is a theory that deals with personal experience. People have a way of interpreting the things around them and coming up with a formidable experience (Griffin 2009).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Application of Seven Communication Traditions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The attributes can develop even from the time a person is young (Adler Rodman 2003). After examining things and testing them, then one can make a personal judgment. Ã¢â¬ËAn example of personal experience is about loveÃ¢â¬â¢ (Littlejohn Foss 2011, p.75). One can understand love by personally experiencing it. One can also gain this experience from the level of contact with something or people determine the meaning it represents to someone (Adler Rodman 2003). Language also becomes the most important vehicle for learning. It has a way of developing meanings to certain things. People experience the world because of the way language expresses it to be. Ã¢â¬ËThere are things that people know because of the associated labelsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Griffin 2009, p.210). For instance, when one buys goods that may be in a box, there are labels that indicate which side should face up (Adler Rodman 2003). For other goods, there are even labels that help the user to know which part to open. Ã¢â¬ËThe way a person interprets a message is central to the already available perception or phenomenological thoughtÃ¢â¬â¢ (Littlejohn Foss 2011, p.73). The thoughts to interpret some message become active whenever similar messages are available. It is then the process of going back to the previous personal experience and using it to interpret the present information (Craig Muller 2007). The Classical Phenomenol ogy expresses truth through direct experience. For some information or something to be entirely true, then one has to put away any biases (Craig Muller 2007). The phenomenology of perception clarifies that people know things only because of their personal relationships to those things. In as much as the world affects people, so do people affect the world through their personal knowledge (Macnamara 2013). Hermeneutic phenomenology adds communication to this definition. It is the words and languages that cause things to have a different meaning in life (Griffin 2009). The Quitline Services Campaign is a progressive way that the government is using to reduce and or stop people from smoking (Miller 2005). The smokers can have time to talk to the campaign officials about their feelings. They can also have time to listen to what others have gone through and decide if they want to remain the same or change their behaviors.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The campaign can establish a means through which the people can assist each other through dialogue and personal assistance to colleagues to encourage quitting (Craig Muller 2007). They can also have a forum through which the people can be writing their personal experience through social networks and the website. The Cybernetic tradition A family is not just a collection of individuals related by blood (Macnamara 2013). A family has an organized system of relating with each other. There are ways in which they interact with one another and influence each other towards making certain decisions (Craig Muller 2007). They have a way in which they communicate with family members to pass a specific message in a specific way. There are also changes that happen within and to the family after some time. They make things to change and people to behave in a certain way. Cybernetics is, therefore, the tradition of com plex systems whereby the complex elements influence one another (Griffin 2009). There is the involvement of physical and biological processes. Some behavioral and social attributes also contribute to cybernetics (Struever 2009). A system results from the contribution of very many others parts that form together something that is more than the collection of the initial parts. In a system, there is the aspect of interdependence that binds the parts together (Craig Muller 2007). One part must rely on the service of the other to make a reasonable impact. Systems also have the attribute of self-regulation and control. The reason for doing so is to maintain stability and to succeed in attains the desired goals. Ã¢â¬ËThe system can be complex and highly adaptableÃ¢â¬â¢ (Craig Muller 2007, p.280). When passing information, the government needs to ensure that the piece of information is highly influential so that it can erode the previous perspective no matter how strong it is (Griffin 2009). The government must not ignore the social and culture factors because they form a system that needs direct attention (Adler Rodman 2003). It may not be the best method to address individual smokers, but it can be a way to form new habits in the smokers. The government can develop a new culture in the reforming and reformed smokers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Application of Seven Communication Traditions specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Sociopsychological Tradition Every individual has different parts of the body that come together to make whole human beings. The interactions between these individual parts are what makes one a whole person. The same applies to the human being (Craig Muller 2007). One cannot become a solitary being without being part of a certain family, community, and or a country. The social interaction between these people is what binds them together. Persons are entities with characteristics that lead them to behave in independent ways. Most of the sociopsychological theories are cognitive. They offer guidance on how people process information (Adler Rodman 2003). The human mind is so powerful that it has the capability of grasping, accommodating, and changing information to make the individual to adapt to certain kind of behavior (Struever 2009). Communication scientists are still in a dilemma as to how the human mind functions. They are still doing research to come up with clear explanation. The tradition has three branches that include the behavioral, the cognitive, and the biological (Craig Muller 2007). The behavioral theories concentrate on how people behave in communication situations. There is a relationship between what one says and what one does. It guarantees repetition of behavior if there is a reward that motivates them and helps the to continue the way one behaves. The cognitive theory focuses on the patterns of thought. It is how p eople, acquire, store, and process information that leads to a certain behavior. The mental operations also control what one does (Griffin 2009). The biological scientists have come to believe that most of what people do result from the biological traits. They may not come from learning or any situational factors (Adler Rodman 2003). Dissonance can help the smoker to stop smoking. The government can find some explanations on how to make these people remodel their thoughts towards smoking (Littlejohn Foss 2011). The government can find some psychologists to work with the team so that they can understand the individual smokers before engaging them in the desired change (Adler Rodman 2003). The Sociocultural Tradition It is a tradition that puts more emphasize on the identity of a person (Adler Rodman 2003). Every individual belongs to a certain group of people.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One may be a student, a Christian, a Muslim, and a Hispanic (Craig Muller 2007). The sociocultural approaches theory appeal to the understanding of the people, their norms, and rules. They engage the people as belonging to a given culture. Community or Society comes from some connections that include communication. It is the social interactions that enable people to make meanings of things (Miller 2005). Smokers would always find a way to communicate. When they share cigarettes, they begin relationships that go a long way. Sometimes when they meet they start discussing events and matters that concern their colleagues (Carey 2009). The government can use such interactions to build new relationships and pass a strong message. Because they keep meeting other smokers during their daily routines, the message can spread far and wide (Pernot 2009). Another way is to put them into groups (Carey 2009). One group can comprise of the smokers who are unable to stop smoking because of their per sonal choice. The second one can include those who volunteer to quit smoking (Griffin 2009). Another group can be for those who have quitted and many more (Struever 2009). It would depend on how they categorize them. Those who have quit can be useful in government adverts giving others ideas on how to quit and live a healthy life (Craig Muller 2007). The Critical Tradition Critical communication theory supports the tradition by coming up with the message that gives direction on how to control tobacco (Carey 2009). It also provides messages that would reach out to the smokers to make them stop doing so. The Critical political economy theory gives the governing bodies like the governments the upper hand in stopping the habit (Littlejohn Foss 2011). In short, the government is the one with all the power and, therefore, it can control it the way it seems well. However, it must use its moral obligation in a way that it promotes good health and peace (Adler Rodman 2003). The government can use its power in a positive way to help, support, and manage the menace. It has the available media channel to do its work (Pernot 2009). Through the media, they can construct and spread new and important ideas to the people (Carey 2009). They can use symbols and pictures to force the smokers to let go of their habit. The smokers may think that they are making their personal choice (Griffin 2009). However, most of the tobacco companies have resources to counter what the government does so that they can stay relevant (Craig Muller 2007). They may challenge the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision through their messages and advertisements through the same media. It is upon the government and its agencies to put forward a forceful message (Carey 2009). The Rhetorical Tradition The theory dates back to very many years I the Greek history. It has to do with using words without putting emphasize on the action that somebody should take (Littlejohn Foss 2011). Sometimes it can relate to what politicians do when they are looking for votes. It can relate to public speaking, teaching, and even preaching (Littlejohn Foss 2011). It originally was important for persuasion (Craig Muller 2007). It was an art that involved putting arguments into constructive sense and making the speech. Later it became the process of adjusting ideas to people and people to ideas. It is the human symbol. Due to adjustments, it has now evolved to include the use of symbols to affect others (Carey 2009). It focuses more on the speaker and the way the speaker says things rather what they say (Pernot 2009). The health sector may use benevolent rhetoric to help people improve their health. People, therefore, believe that the intention of the user is good (Adler Rodman 2003). There is also conversion rhetoric that can become useful to change the attitude of the people towards something (Adler Rodman 2003). It is the way the preacher or the motivational speaker can engage people to help them choose a superior position over what they have been doing (Craig Muller 2007). It could be the best method that the government can use (Struever 2009). But faced with the anticipated reaction from the smokers, it could only make matters worse (Carey 2009). There are people who would still listen and think that the information is helpful to them. Sometimes a good speech by an influential person like an opinion leader can make a difference. It is upon the government and the government agencies to formulate the policies that would guide the way forward. Some family members can be very helpful. References Adler, R Rodman, G 2003, Understanding human communication, Oxford University Press, New York. Carey, J 2009, Communication as culture, Routledge, New York. Craig, R Muller, H 2007, Theorising communication: readings across traditions, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. Griffin, E 2009, A first look at communication theory. 7th ed. McGraw Hill, New York. Littlejohn, S Foss, K 2011, Theories of human communication. 10th ed. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California. Macnamara, J 2013, The 21st century media revolution: emergent communication practices. 2nd ed. Peter Lang, New York. Miller, K 2005, Communication theories: perspectives, processes and contexts. 2nd ed. McGraw Hill, Boston. Pernot, L 2009, New chapters in the history of rhetoric, Brill, Leiden. Struever, N 2009, The history of rhetoric and the rhetoric of history, Ashgate, Farnham. This essay on The Application of Seven Communication Traditions was written and submitted by user Helena Rosa to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Dial One, Followed by the Octothorpe Dial One, Followed by the Octothorpe Dial One, Followed by the Octothorpe By Maeve Maddox Everyone knows the cross-hatched symbol #. For some its the pound sign because it has been used by greengrocers as a symbol for pound on the little signs pricing fruit and vegetables: .75# (seventy-five cents a pound). For some its the tic-tac-toe sign because of the game that uses it as the playing area. Automated telephone systems instruct us to dial certain numbers, followed by the pound sign, a direction that confused me at first because I think of this symbol as the number sign. As if there werent already enough names for it, engineers at Bell have come up with an official moniker for it: the octothorpe. The octo part comes from the fact that the symbol has eight points. No one seems to be able to say with any certainty where the thorpe comes from. European phone companies, like British Telecom, call the symbol a square, a term apparently too simple for the North American telephone industry. On the other hand, rather than use the obvious word asterisk for that symbol on the dial, the telephone powers prefer to call it a star. Go figure. For an exploration of the etymology of octothorpe visit World Wide Words. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:12 Types of LanguageGrammar Quiz #21: Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses50 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"VillainÃ¢â¬
Monday, March 2, 2020
Common Editing and Proofreading Marks in Composition When your instructor returns a composition, are you sometimes puzzled by the abbreviations and symbols that appear in the margins? If so, this guide should help you decipher those marks during the editing and proofreading stages of the writing process. Common Proofreading Marks Explained The following proofreading marks have a brief explanation of the definition your instructor is likely trying to convey for your revisions. ab: AbbreviationÃ (Use a standard abbreviation or write out the word in full.) ad: Adjective or adverbÃ (Use the correct form of the modifier.) agr: AgreementÃ (Use the correct ending to make the verb agree with its subject.) awk: Awkward expression or construction. cap: Capital letterÃ (Replace a lowercase letter with a capital letter.) case: CaseÃ (Use the appropriate case of the pronoun: subjective, objective, or possessive.) clichÃ ©: ClichÃ ©Ã (Replace the worn-out expression with a fresh figure of speech.) coh: CoherenceÃ and cohesion (Make clear connections as you move from one point to the next.) coord: CoordinationÃ (Use coordinating conjunctions to relate equal ideas.) cs: Comma spliceÃ (Replace the comma with a period or a conjunction.) d: DictionÃ (Replace the word with one thats more precise or appropriate.) dm: Dangling modifierÃ (Add a word so that the modifier refers to something in the sentence.)Ã emph: EmphasisÃ (Restructure the sentence to emphasize a key word or phrase.) frag: Sentence fragmentÃ (Add a subject or verb to make this word group complete.) fs: Fused sentenceÃ (Separate the word group into two sentences.) gloss: Glossary of usageÃ (Check the glossary to see how to use this word correctly.) hyph: HyphenÃ (Insert a hyphen between these two words or word parts.) inc: Incomplete construction. irreg: Irregular verbÃ (Check our index of verbs to find the correct form of this irregular verb.) ital: ItalicsÃ (Put the marked word or phrase in italics.) jarg: JargonÃ (Replace the expression with one your readers will understand.) lc: Lowercase letter (Replace a capital letter with a lowercase letter.) mm: Misplaced modifierÃ (Move the modifier so that it clearly refers to an appropriate word.) mood: MoodÃ (Use the correct mood of the verb.) nonst: Nonstandard usageÃ (Use standard words and word forms in formal writing.) org: OrganizationÃ (Organize information clearly and logically.) p: PunctuationÃ (Use an appropriate mark of punctuation.) apostrophe : colon , comma - Ã dash . period ? question mark quotation marks Ã ¶: Paragraph breakÃ (Begin a new paragraph at this point.) //: ParallelismÃ (Express paired words, phrases, or clauses in grammatically parallel form.) pro: PronounÃ (Use a pronoun that refers clearly to a noun.) run-on: Run-on (fused) sentenceÃ (Separate the word group into two sentences.) slang: SlangÃ (Replace the marked word or phrase with a more formal or conventional expression.) sp: SpellingÃ (Correct a misspelled word or spell out an abbreviation.) subord: SubordinationÃ (Use a subordinating conjunction to connect a supporting word group to the main idea.) tense: TenseÃ (Use the correct tense of the verb.) trans: TransitionÃ (Add an appropriate transitional expression to guide readers from one point to the next.) unity: UnityÃ (Dont stray too far from your main idea.) v/^: Missing letter(s) or word(s). #: Insert a space. wordy: Wordy writing (Cut out unnecessary words.) ww: Wrong word (Use a dictionary to find a more appropriate word.)